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說︰我並不害怕凡神,至少不像大多數人那樣害怕,因為有些時候,我覺得 退回後方比前線的種種恐怖更加可怕,我知道在後方有不少了解我罪過的知 情人——再說,叫我回到哪里去呢?準需要我,誰還愛我?叫我為誰,為什 麼事情活著呢?只要勇敢不表示別的更加崇高的事情,而只是表示不害怕, 那麼我可以心安理得、老老實實地宣稱,我在戰場上的確是勇敢的。因為甚 至在我的伙伴當中最富男子漢大丈夫氣概的人都認為比死更糟的事情——甚 至打成殘廢,缺胳臂少腿這樣的可能性——也沒有把我嚇退。我大概會覺得 自己無援無助,成了個殘廢,這正是對我的懲罰,對我的公正的報復。我自 己的同情心在當時過于怯懦,過于軟弱,所以讓我現在自己成為一切陌生人 同情的對象。如果說,我沒有踫上死神,這可並不是由于我的疏忽。我曾經 以一個置生死于度外的人的冷漠眼光去看待死神,幾十次向它迎面走去。什 麼地方有特別艱苦的戰斗,什麼地方需要志願兵,我就報名。什麼地方發生 硬踫硬的激烈戰斗我就覺得舒服。第一次負傷以後,我要求調到機槍連,後 來又要求調去當飛行員。顯然我在那里駕駛我們那些簡陋的飛機的確取得了 種種成功。可是每次我在一份公告上面看見“勇敢”二字和我的名字印在一 起,我總覺得自己是個騙子。要是有人目光過于尖銳地瞅著我的勛章,我就 趕快拐到一邊去。   “新郎還在路上,沒到酒店。名單上只有一個周家輝……”女人想了想,又追問道,“您確定是來參加劉文強和高薇薇的婚禮?”婷婷情色五月天 現在,他們已經都看見我了,我沒法再向後轉。于是我盡可能落落大方 地緩步走了過去。我心里並不自在,我對說笑閑聊一點興趣也沒有。再說一婷婷五月花A级高清免费毛片av无码   可牽扯到寧嘉,我就沒辦法拒絕,盡管我知道,就算偷到錢救出她的小白臉,她對我的恨也一點兒不會減少。   【也許mouse】婷婷色播 已經拉到身邊,卻沒有能拽住,再沒有比這更荒唐的事了。我仿佛過于急速 地爬上了一座雄偉無比的高山,心口怦怦直跳。這是怎麼回事?打電話來的 只可能是康多爾。可是他怎麼現在夜里十二點半打電話給我呢?

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

Conference

 

On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

Conference

 

In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

Conference

All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.