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在談到中國畫筆墨問題時,有人問︰“黃賓虹的山水畫看來很草率,與時下的作風大異,難道草率中也能見出筆墨功夫嗎?” 傅雷在赴法求學那年,便與她定親。當時傅雷十九歲,朱梅馥十四歲。五月爱深深爱在线视频 五月婷婷激色情网 傅雷回答說︰“真正的藝術,都是天然外加人工的結果,猶如大塊鐵經過熔煉方能成材成器。人工熔煉,技術為尚;攝景發興,胸意為高,二者相齊,方臻完滿。我先是說了技術,後又說了精神,實際上,它們是一物二體,即不矛盾,也難分離。況且,唯有真正悟得了技術的用處,才能識得性情境界的重要。而無論是技術,還是精神,都有賴于長期的修積和磨煉。師法古人,也是修養的一個階段,不可缺少,但尤其不可過于執著。便是接受古法,也僅僅是為了學者的便利,為了免去暗中摸索,決不是學習的最終目的。拘于古法,必自斬靈機;將楷模當成偶像,必墮入畫師魔境,非庸即陋,非甜即俗。再說,對‘師法造化’一語,也不可以詞害意,誤以為就是寫實。它原本的含義,就不是指藝術在自然面前,要去貌其蟑巒開合、狀其迂回曲折的意思。雖然說,學習初期,狀物寫形,經營位置等等,免不了要以自然為粉本,但‘師法造化’的真義,還須更進~層。那就是︰畫家要能覽宇宙之寶藏,窮天地之常理,窺自然之和諧,悟萬物之生機;飽游沃看,冥思遐想,窮年累月,胸中自具神奇,造化自為我有。這就是說,‘師法造化’,不單單是技術方面的事,更是一門修養人格的終生課業。修養到一定功夫,就能不求氣韻而氣韻自至,不求成法而法在其中。概括地說,寫實可,摹古可,師法造化,更無不可。但決須牢記,那只不過是初學的一個階段,決不是藝術的峰巔。先須有法,終須無法。用這樣的觀念習畫觀畫,才能真正步入正道。” 婷婷五月色香综合缴情

As a teacher at a language school, one of my key interests is monitoring and understanding the journey of my students’ language progress. Sometimes, it can be a little disheartening realising that perhaps my best efforts are still not enough to help students who may not be responding to the coursework. I believe that as a teacher, there must be something I can improve on which can help all my students achieve maximum progress.

Recently, I attended a session held by Pearson on The Global Scale of English. This session discusses The Global Scale of English (GSE), a standard to measure learner’s English competencies, and the GSE Teacher Toolkit. Below, I will tell you what I’ve gained from the session.

 

Quote 1

What is GSE?

The Global Scale of English, or GSE for short, is a measurement that helps teachers to measure the competencies of English learners. The GSE’s development has been based on the CEFR model. CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) has been widely used by teachers, students, schools, and publishers to standardise language competency. It can be broken down into three groups of basic users (A), independent users (B), and proficient users (C), with two levels for each ‘user group’. CEFR contains a number of ‘can-do statements’. Each level in CEFR has its own ‘can- do statements’ which learners need to achieve in order to move to the higher level.

Below is CEFR levels and their labels:

CEFR Levels

*source: https://www.english.com/blog/addressing-the-missing-levels-with-gse/

Within schools, learners have a certain amount of time to complete a course and achieve ‘can-do statements’ of a CEFR level. As every learner’s ability and progress in learning is unique, not all learners progress at the same pace. Progress takes time, and each learner needs their own individual time to attain a certain level of competency.

Quote 2

In the long run, this creates a problem.

A learner who has studied English for a long time may be assumed to belong to a particular level of CEFR (let’s say B1), but there is possibility that the learner belongs to between A2 and B1 instead. However, since the learner is placed in a B1 class, he or she needs to keep up with B1-level expectations. This can lead to difficulties for the learner in reaching maximum progress and obtaining a satisfactory learning result at the end of an English program. Up to this point, I can very much relate this scenario with some of my students.

GSE aims to fill the gap. By quantifying each level of CEFR, GSE gives a more accurate manner of predicting learner’s competency in CEFR model. By having accurate knowledge of learner’s competency, teachers can be more precise in planning their lesson. Therefore, maximum progress of all students can take place.

Below is a comparison between CEFR and GSE:

GSE Tabel

The above presents the GSE measuring table of proficiency in all language skills and levels based on the CEFR model. As we can see, there is a wide range between some CEFR levels (A2 to B1, B1 to B2, B2 to C1). Hence, a class of A2, for example, consists of learners with competency score 30 (near A1) to 42 (almost B1). GSE helps teachers in identifying the minimum and maximum point of learners’ competency, so that they can plan lessons in which no learner is left behind.

 

Working with GSE

A teacher who is planning a lesson to suit their student’s competency may consult GSE learning objectives by visiting GSE Teacher Toolkit page, https://www.english.com/gse/teacher-toolkit/user/lo . There is a GSE/CEFR scale, where buttons can be moved horizontally based on the score range intended.

For example, if you have a class with A2 level, you can drag the left button on the scale to the minimum A2 score (30) and drag the right button to the maximum A2 score (42). See the picture below for an example:

Conference

 

On the left side there is a box to choose learner type and skill. For example if we chose to combine ‘adult learners’ and ‘reading’, by clicking the ‘show results’ you will get 22 learning objectives based on order of GSE scores.

Conference

 

Besides learning objectives, GSE Teacher Toolkit also provides Grammar and Vocabulary sections.

Conference

 

In the Grammar section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides downloadable activities based on the chosen grammar category.

Conference

 

In the Vocabulary section, GSE Teacher Toolkit provides pronunciation with American and British accents, definitions, as well as collocation.

Conference

All the above facilities are easily accessed and free to use. These conveniences do not only save teacher’s time and energy, but most importantly they help teachers prepare the right course materials so that their learners get opportunities to reach maximum progress.

 

Conclusion

The Global Scale of English (GSE) provides at least four advantages for both teachers and learners:

  • Teacher obtain a better understanding of students’ individual competency. Therefore, they can prepare and adapt the right course materials in order to suit students’ needs.

  • The GSE Teacher Toolkit makes lesson planning simple, accurate, and easy to use.

  • Learners are given more opportunities to achieve maximum progress in learning English.

  • Recognised globally, GSE helps students to gain confidence in their language ability and competency acceptance.

To learn more about the GSE Teacher’s Toolkit, please visit here.

 

BIODATA

WINDA HAPSARI is an English teacher and teacher educator at LIA Language School, Indonesia. She has been working with a variety of learners for about two decades. She earned her master’s degree in educational psychology from Universitas Indonesia. Besides teaching, she also conducts classroom / educational research and publishes some of her works. Her recent article, which she co- authored with a colleague, titled Teaching Reading to Encourage Critical Thinking and Collaborative Work is published by Springer in early 2018. Her interest includes areas of teacher professional development, teaching language skills, and motivation.